Libya, a country located in North Africa. Most of the country lies in the Sahara Desert, where Tripoli (Ṭarābulus), the de facto capital. Libya comprises three historical regions—Tripolitania in the northwest, Cyrenaica in the east, and Fezzan in the southwest. The Ottoman authorities recognized them as separate provinces. Under Italian rule, they were unified to form a single colony, which gave way to independent Libya. For much of Libya’s early history, both Tripolitania and Cyrenaica were more closely linked with neighboring territories than with one other. Before the discovery of oil in the late 1950s, Libya was considered poor in natural resources and severely limited by its desert environment. The country was almost entirely dependent upon foreign aid and imports for the maintenance of its economy; the discovery of petroleum dramatically changed this situation. Libya is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the north, Egypt on the east, Sudan on the southeast, Niger and Chad on the south, and Tunisia and Algeria on the west.
The Economy of Libya depends primarily upon revenues from the petroleum sector, which contributes practically all export earnings and over half of GDP. These oil revenues and a small population have given Libya the highest nominal per capita GDP in Africa. After 2000, Libya recorded favorable growth rates with an estimated 10.6% growth of GDP in 2010. This development was interrupted by the Libyan Civil War, which resulted in a contraction of the economy by 62.1% in 2011. After the war, the economy rebounded by 104.5% in 2012, but it has yet to achieve its pre-war level.
|Agriculture||Wheat, Barley, Maize, Millet, Potatoes, Tomatoes, Ground nuts, Cabbage, Green peas, Garlics, Onions, Pumpkin, Eggplant, Cucumber, Water melons.|
|Manufacture||Petroleum, steel, iron, food processing, textiles, cement.|
|Services (Including financial)||52.5% (2014 estimate)|
|African investment bank||Bank|
|Challenger LTD||Oil & Gas|
|Libya iron and steel||Iron & Steel|
|Libyan cement company||Industry|
|Jowfe Oil Technology||Oil & Gas|
The History of Libya includes the history of its rich mix of ethnic groups added to the indigenous Berber tribes. Berbers have been present throughout the entire history of the country. For most of its history, Libya has been subjected to varying degrees of foreign control, from Europe, Asia, and Africa. The modern history of independent Libya began in 1951. The history of Libya comprises six distinct periods: Ancient Libya, the Roman era, the Islamic era, Ottoman rule, Italian rule, and the Modern era. Tens of thousands of years ago, the Sahara Desert, which now covers roughly 90% of Libya, was lush with green vegetation. It was home to lakes, forests, diverse wildlife and a temperate Mediterranean climate. Archaeological evidence indicates that the coastal plain was inhabited by Neolithic peoples from as early as 8000 BCE. These peoples were perhaps drawn by the climate, which enabled their culture to grow, subsisting on the domestication of cattle and the cultivation of crops. Rock paintings at Wadi Mathendous and the mountainous region of Jebel Acacus are the best sources of information about prehistoric Libya, and the pastoralist culture that settled there. The paintings reveal that the Libyan Sahara contained rivers, grassy plateaus and an abundance of wildlife such as giraffes, elephants and crocodiles. The onset of the 5.9 kiloyear event's intense aridification resulted in the "green Sahara" rapidly transforming into the Sahara Desert. Dispersal in Africa from the Atlantic coast to the Siwa Oasis in Egypt seems to have followed, due to climatic changes which caused increasing desertification. The Afro-Asiatic ancestors of the Berber people are assumed to have spread into the area by the Late Bronze Age. The earliest known name of such a tribe is that of the Garamantes, who were based in Germa. The Garamantes were a Saharan people of Berber origin who used an elaborate underground irrigation system; they were probably present as tribal people in the Fezzan by about 1000 BCE, and were a local power in the Sahara between 500 BCE and 500 CE. By the time of contact with the Phoenicians, the first of the Semitic civilizations to arrive in Libya from the East, the Lebu, Garamantes, Berbers and other tribes that lived in the Sahara were already well established.
Fayez Al Sarraj
(Revolutionary leader & politician)
(King, political & religious leader)
The dinar is the currency of Libya. The dinar is subdivided into 1000 dirham, It was introduced in September 1971 and replaced the pound at par. In 1975, coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 dirhams which bore the coat of arms of the Federation of Arab Republics. These were followed in 1979 by a second series of coins, in the same denominations, which bore a design of a horseman in place of the arms. ¼ and ½ dinar coins were issued in 2001 and 2004, respectively. In 2009, new 50, 100 dirhams, ¼ and ½ dinar coins were issued. 1, 5, 10, and 20 dirham coins are rarely used as units of exchange. However, they still retain their status as legal tenders. In 2013 and 2014, the Central Bank of Libya issued ¼ and ½ dinar coins and 50 and 100 dirham coins. In 1971, banknotes were introduced in denominations of ¼, ½, 1, 5 and 10 dinar. 20 dinar notes were added in 2002. On August 27, 2008, the Central Bank of Libya announced a new 50 dinar note and that was scheduled to enter circulation on August 31, 2008. The note is already in circulation and features Muammar Gaddafi on the obverse. A revised 5-dinar banknote was issued with altered features similar to the revised 10-dinar banknote. On February 17, 2013, on the occasion of the second anniversary of the Libyan civil war, the Central Bank of Libya issued a 1 dinar banknote, its first issue following the 2011 Libyan revolution and civil war. The front of the note depicts Anti-Gaddafi protesters with the flag of the Libyan rebels.
The back of the note depicts the flag of Libya and peace doves.On March 31, 2013, the Central Bank of Libya issued a 20 dinar banknote. The predominantly orange-colored note features a school in Ghadames on the front and the Al-Ateeq mosque and the oasis of Oujla on the back. In June 2013, the Central Bank of Libya issued a 50 dinar banknote. The green-colored note features the Italian lighthouse in Benghazi on the front and the Rock formation in the Tadrart Acacus mountains on the back. This is the first note in Libya to utilize Crane's "Motion" thread.
|National Song||"Libya, Libya, Libya"|
|Currency||Libyan dinar (LYD)|
|GDP / GDP Rank||55.409 Billion USD|
|GDP Growth Rate||-6.4 Percent|
|GDP Per Captial||$8678.455 (PPP)|
< 1.0% Hindus
< 1.0% Buddhists
< 1.0% Jews
< 1.0% Other Religions
Berber And Arab 97%
Other 3% (Includes Greeks
Chairman of the Presidential Council and Prime Minister – Fayez al-Sarraj
|Website||Go to the web|
|Public Debt||7.4 Percent|
|Unemployment Rate||19.22 Percent|
|Labor Force (Occupation)||-|