Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a federal republic and sovereign nation located in North America. The country is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Belize, Guatemala, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometers (over 760,000 Sq. mi), Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million, it is the eleventh most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and the second most populous country in Latin America. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-two states, including Mexico City, it's capital and largest city, which is also a state.
According to the IMF the Mexican banking system is strong, in which private banks are profitable and well-capitalized. The financial and banking sector is increasingly dominated by foreign companies or mergers of foreign and Mexican companies with the notable exception of Banorte. The acquisition of Banamex, one of the oldest surviving financial institutions in Mexico, by Citigroup was the largest US-Mexico corporate merger, at the US $12.5 billion. In spite of that, the largest financial institution in Mexico is Ban comer associated with the Spanish BBVA. The process of institution building in the financial sector in Mexico has evolved hand in hand with the efforts of financial liberalization and of inserting the economy more fully into world markets. Over recent years, there has been a wave of acquisitions by foreign institutions such as US-based Citigroup, Spain’s BBVA and the UK’s HSBC. Their presence, along with a better regulatory framework, has allowed Mexico’s banking system to recover from the 1994–95 peso devaluation.
Lending to the public and private sector is increasing and so is activity in the areas of insurance, leasing, and mortgages. However, bank credit accounts for only 22% of GDP, which is significantly low compared to 70% in Chile. Credit to the Agricultural sector has fallen 45.5% in six years (2001 to 2007), and now represents about 1% of total bank loans. Other important institutions include savings and loans, credit unions (known as "cajas populares"), government development banks, “non-bank banks”, bonded warehouses, bonding companies, and foreign-exchange firms. A wave of acquisitions has left Mexico’s financial sector in foreign hands. Their foreign-run affiliates compete with independent financial firms operating as commercial banks, brokerage, and securities houses, insurance companies, retirement-fund administrators, mutual funds, and leasing companies.
|Agriculture||Corn, sugarcane, sorghum, wheat, tomatoes, bananas, chili peppers, oranges, lemons, limes, mangos, other tropical fruits, beans, barley, avocados, blue agave and coffee.|
|Manufacture||Aerospace, electronics, food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles & consumer durables.|
|Services (Including financial)||59.8% (2013 estimate)|
|Grupo Bimbo||Food processing|
The Mexican Stock Exchange (Spanish: Bolsa Mexicana de Valores), commonly known as Mexican Bolsa, Mexbol, or BMV, is the only stock exchange in Mexico. It is the second largest stock exchange in Latin America, only after Brazil's BM&F Bovespa. It is also the fifth largest stock exchange in the Americas. The exchange platform is owned by BMV Group, which also owns the derivative exchange MexDer and the custody agency Indeval. On 19 April 1990, the Centro Bursátil was finished on Paseo de la Reforma, turning the Stock Exchange Centre into the heart of the financial district of Mexico City. Five years later, the BMV completely modernized the Centre, introducing a completely electronic system (BMV-SENTRA) which was phased into the workings of the exchange, becoming fully operational by 1999. In 2001, Citigroup became the first foreign company to begin trading in the BMV, opening the door to many new companies to do the same, especially from Central and South America. The same year, the Securities' Market Law was reformed according to the demutualization of BMV. The following year, the Corporativo Mexicano Del Mercado de Valores, S.A. de C.V. was constituted to manage the hiring of personnel, and administration of the Stock Exchange and other financial institutions within the Centre.
In 2003, the global market was made available through the BMV, allowing national investors access to foreign securities from within the country. In 2006, the Mexican securities market was opened to foreigners through the MexDer system, allowing them operation from anywhere in the world. In October of the same year, four ETFs (exchange-traded funds) over indexes of the stock exchange itself were listed, placing BMV in the first place in Latin America in terms of ETFs listed over own indexes, and as the leading stock exchange in terms of total ETFs. In 2010, the BMV signed an alliance with the world's largest derivatives exchange, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, putting Mexican derivatives within reach of international investors.
The Mexican peso crisis (also known as the Tequila crisis or December mistake crisis) was a currency crisis sparked by the Mexican government's sudden devaluation of the peso against the U.S. dollar in December 1994, which became one of the first international financial crisis ignited by capital flight. During the 1994 presidential election, the incumbent administration embarked on expansionary fiscal and monetary policy. The Mexican treasury began issuing short-term debt instruments denominated in domestic currency with a guaranteed repayment in U.S. dollars, attracting foreign investors. Mexico enjoyed investor confidence and new access to international capital following its signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). However, a violent uprising in the state of Chiapas, as well as the assassination of the presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio, resulted in political instability, causing investors to place an increased risk premium on Mexican assets
In response, the Mexican central bank intervened in the foreign exchange markets to maintain the Mexican peso's peg to the U.S. dollar by issuing dollar-denominated public debt to buy pesos. The peso's strength caused demand for imports to increase, resulting in a trade deficit. Speculators recognized an overvalued peso and capital began flowing out of Mexico to the United States, increasing downward market pressure on the peso. Under election pressures, Mexico purchased its own treasury securities to maintain its money supply and avert rising interest rates, drawing down the bank's dollar reserves. Supporting the money supply by buying more dollar-denominated debt while simultaneously honoring such debt depleted the bank's reserves by the end of 1994.
The central bank devalued the peso on December 20, 1994, and foreign investors' fear led to an even higher risk premium. To discourage the resulting capital flight, the bank raised interest rates, but higher costs of borrowing merely hurt economic growth. Unable to sell new issues of public debt or efficiently purchase dollars with devalued pesos, Mexico faced a default. Two days later, the bank allowed the peso to float freely, after which it continued to depreciate. The Mexican economy experienced hyperinflation of around 52% and mutual funds began liquidating Mexican assets as well as emerging market assets in general. The effects spread to economies in Asia and the rest of Latin America. The United States organized a $50 billion bailout for Mexico in January 1995, administered by the IMF with the support of the G7 and Bank for International Settlements. In the aftermath of the crisis, several of Mexico's banks collapsed amidst widespread mortgage defaults. The Mexican economy experienced a severe recession and poverty and unemployment increased.
On December 20, 1994, newly inaugurated President Ernesto Zedillo announced the Mexican central bank's devaluation of the peso between 13% and 15%. Devaluing the peso after previous promises not to do so led investors to be skeptical of policymakers and fearful of additional devaluations. Investors flocked to foreign investments and placed even higher risk premia on domestic assets. This increase in risk premia placed additional upward market pressure on Mexican interest rates as well as downward market pressure on the Mexican peso. Foreign investors anticipating further currency devaluations began rapidly withdrawing capital from Mexican investments and selling off shares of stock as the Mexican Stock Exchange plummeted. To discourage such capital flight, particularly from debt instruments, the Mexican central bank raised interest rates, but higher borrowing costs ultimately hindered economic growth prospects. When the time came for Mexico to roll over its maturing debt obligations, few investors were interested in purchasing new debt. To repay tesobonos, the central bank had little choice but to purchase dollars with its severely weakened pesos, which proved extremely expensive. The Mexican government faced an imminent sovereign default.
On December 22, the Mexican government allowed the peso to float, after which the peso depreciated another 15%. The value of the Mexican peso depreciated roughly 50% from 3.4 MXN/USD to 7.2, recovering only to 5.8 MXN/USD four months later. Prices in Mexico rose by 24% over the same four months, and by the end of 1995, Mexico's hyperinflation had reached 52%. Mutual funds, which had invested in over $45 billion worth of Mexican assets in the several years leading up to the crisis, began liquidating their positions in Mexico and other developing countries. Foreign investors not only fled Mexico but emerging markets in general, and the crisis led to financial contagion throughout other financial markets in Asia and Latin America. The impact of Mexico's crisis on the Southern Cone and Brazil became known as the "Tequila effect".
Pre-Columbian Mexico was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, such as the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec before the first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Three centuries later, this territory became Mexico following recognition in 1821 after the colony's Mexican War of Independence.
The tumultuous post-independence period was characterized by economic instability and many political changes. The Mexican–American War (1846–48) led to the territorial cession of the extensive northern borderlands, one-third of its territory, to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires and a domestic dictatorship occurred through the 19th century. The dictatorship was overthrown in the Mexican Revolution of 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system. Mexico has the fifteenth largest nominal GDP and the eleventh largest GDP by purchasing power parity. The Mexican economy is strongly linked to those of its North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, especially the United States.
Mexico was the first Latin American member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD (since 1994). It is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts. By 2050, Mexico could become the world's fifth or seventh largest economy. The country is considered both a regional power and middle power, and is often identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and sixth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In 2015 it was the tenth most visited country in the world, with 29.1 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the UN, the WTO, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus and is an observer of the Organization Internationale de la Francophonie since 2014.
Agustin de Iturbide
Manuel Goazalez Flores
In 1863, the first issue was made of coins denominated in centavos, worth one hundredth of the peso. This was followed in 1866 by coins denominated "one peso". Coins denominated in reales continued to be issued until 1897. In 1905, the gold content of the peso was reduced by 49.3% but the silver content of the peso remained initially unchanged (subsidiary coins were debased). However, from 1918 onward, the weight and fineness of all the silver coins declined, until 1977, when the last silver 100-peso coins were minted. Throughout most of the 20th century, the Mexican peso remained one of the more stable currencies in Latin America, since the economy did not experience periods of hyperinflation common to other countries in the region. However, after the Oil Crisis of the late 1970s, Mexico defaulted on its external debt in 1982, and as a result the country suffered a severe case of capital flight, followed by several years of inflation and devaluation, until a government economic strategy called the "Stability and Economic Growth Pact" was adopted under President Carlos Salinas. On January 1, 1993, the Bank of Mexico introduced a new currency, the nuevo peso ("new peso", or MXN), written "N$" followed by the numerical amount. One new peso, or N$1.00, was equal to 1000 of the obsolete MXP pesos. On January 1, 1996, the modifier Nuevo was dropped from the name and new coins and banknotes – identical in every respect to the 1993 issue, with the exception of the now absent word "Nuevo" – were put into circulation. The ISO 4217 code, however, remained unchanged as MXN.
Thanks to the stability of the Mexican economy and the growth in foreign investment, the Mexican peso is now among the 15 most traded currency units in recent years. Since the late 1990s, the peso has traded at about 9 to 15 pesos per U.S. dollar. The first coins of the peso currency were 1 centavo pieces minted in 1863. Emperor Maximilian, ruler of the Second Mexican Empire from 1864–1867, minted the first coins with the legend "peso" on them. His portrait was on the obverse, with the legend "Maximiliano Emperador;" the reverse shows the imperial arms and the legends "Imperio Mexicano" and "1 Peso" and the date. They were struck from 1866 to 1867. The New Mexican republic continued to strike the 8 reales piece, but also began minting coins denominated in centavos and pesos. In addition to copper 1 centavo coins, silver (.903 fineness) coins of 5, 10, 25 and 50 centavos and 1 peso were introduced between 1867 and 1869. Gold 1, 2½, 5, 10 and 20-peso coins were introduced in 1870. The obverses featured the Mexican 'eagle' and the legend "Republica Mexicana." The reverses of the larger coins showed a pair of scales; those of the smaller coins, the denomination. One-peso coins were made from 1865 to 1873 when 8 reales coins resumed production. In 1882, cupro-nickel 1, 2 and 5 centavos coins were issued but they were only minted for two years. The 1 peso was reintroduced in 1898, with the Phrygian cap, or liberty cap design being carried over from the 8 reales.
In 2003 the Banco de Mexico began the gradual launch of a new series of bimetallic $100 coins. These number 32 – one for each of the nation's 31 states, plus the Federal District. While the obverse of these coins bears the traditional coat of arms of Mexico, their reverses show the individual coats of arms of the component states. The first states to be celebrated in this fashion were Zacatecas, Yucatán, Veracruz, and Tlaxcala. In circulation, they are extraordinarily rare, but their novelty value offsets the unease most users feel at having such a large amount of money in a single coin. Although the Bank has tried to encourage users to collect full sets of these coins, issuing special display folders for the purpose, the high cost involved has worked against them. Bullion versions of these coins are also available, with the outer ring made of gold, instead of aluminum bronze. The coins commonly encountered in circulation have face values of 50¢, $1, $2, $5, and $10. The 5¢, 10¢ and 20¢ coins are uncommon due to their small value. Small commodities are priced in multiples of 10¢, but stores may choose to round the total prices to 50¢. There is also a trend for supermarkets to ask customers to round up the total to the nearest 50¢ or 1 peso to automatically donate the difference to charities. The $20, $50 and $100 coins are rarely seen in circulation due to the wide use of the lighter banknotes of the same denominations.
|National Song||"Himno Nacional Mexicano"|
|GDP / GDP Rank||$2315.65 Billion USD|
|GDP Growth Rate||2.5 percent|
|GDP Per Captial||$18938.32(PPP)|
UTC−8 to −5
UTC−7 to −5 (Summer)
83% Roman Catholicism
10% other Christian
0.2% other religion
83% Roman Catholic
President- Andrés Manuel López Obrador
President of Senates- Martí Batres
|Website||Go to the web|
|Public Debt||58.1 percent of GDP|
|Unemployment Rate||4.0 percent|
|Labor Force (Occupation)||-|