|Human or animal blood|
|Nitrogen Heterocylic compounds|
|Planes, helicopters & Space crafts|
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland (officially named Ireland), which covers five-sixths of the island, and Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom and located in the northeast of the island.
Financial services in the Republic of Ireland refers to the services provided by the finance industry: banks, investment banks, insurance companies, credit card companies, consumer finance companies, government-sponsored enterprises, and stock brokerages. The market for the provision of financial services within the Republic of Ireland is dominated by the two large banking groups Allied Irish Banks and Bank of Ireland. However, competition from domestic, overseas and internet providers ensures consumer choice. Ireland has a well-developed market for financial derivatives, with its annual value being measured in $ billions. Most common are interest rate swaps and foreign exchange transactions used by businesses to manage their risk and support their currency requirements. Ireland's strong funds and insurance sectors are also significant users of derivatives, as are other special purpose vehicles located in the country such as securitization structures. The majority of transactions involve the major banks and they, in turn, tend to enter into contracts with institutions outside Ireland, particularly in the EU. The Irish Stock Exchange also has the facility for exchange-traded derivatives. Ireland's proximity to London shared language and time zone is a benefit to its financial services industry. There is a depth of knowledge in Irish institutions and education establishments which supports the financial derivative industry. Irish law is also conducive to financial derivatives trading. The ISDA Master Agreement is commonly used and the country is able to provide a 'clean' legal opinion to ISDA, meaning that there are no significant legal issues which arise if two parties wish to enter into financial derivative contracts. Non-Irish counterparties need to be sure that a counterparty has the specific power to trade financial derivatives: for example, if a company enters into a transaction outside of its objects in its memorandum and articles of association, the transaction may be void and unenforceable as ultra vires. Netting and set-off are fully enforceable in Ireland (see the Netting of Financial Contracts Act 1995). There are few decided cases relating to financial derivatives in the Irish courts but decisions in the courts of England and Wales would be of persuasive authority.
|Agriculture||Barley, potatoes, wheat , beef, dairy products.|
|Manufacture||Gas equipment, fuel cell generator, welding consumables & arc equipment's.|
|Services (Including financial)||70.4% (2013 estimate)|
|Genzyme Ireland (a Sanofi company)||Biotechnology & Pharmaceuticals|
|Intel Security (formerly McAfee Ireland Ltd)||Information Technology|
|PepsiCo Ireland||Manufacturing & Production|
|Version 1||Information Technology|
|Diageo Ireland||Manufacturing & Production|
|Vodafone Ireland Ltd||Telecommunications|
|EBay Inc.||Information Technology|
|Laya Healthcare||Health Care|
|Human or animal blood|
|Nitrogen Heterocylic compounds|
|Planes, helicopters & Space crafts|
The Irish Stock Exchange (ISE) is Ireland's only stock exchange and has been in existence since 1793. It was first recognized by legislation in 1799 when the Irish Parliament passed the Stock Exchange (Dublin) Act. At different periods in its history, the ISE included a number of regional exchanges, including the Cork and Dublin exchanges. In 1973, the Irish exchange merged with the other British and Irish stock exchanges becoming part of the International Stock Exchange of Great Britain and Ireland (now called the London Stock Exchange). In 1995, it became independent again and since then has expanded internationally and established itself as a global listing Centre for the international fund and debt securities. In 2014 it changed its corporate structure and became a plc. The Irish Stock Exchange is a global leader in the listing of debt and fund securities and is the Centre of liquidity for trading shares in Irish companies. With over 32,000 securities listed on its markets, the ISE is the exchange of choice for over 4,000 issuers from 80 countries to raise funds and access international investors. A study by Indecon (international economic consultants) published in 2014 on the Irish Stock Exchange found that having a local stock market and securities industry directly supports 2,100 jobs in Ireland and is worth €207 million each year to the Irish economy. It also found that having a domestic securities industry centered on the Irish Stock Exchange generates €207m in estimated direct economic impact (measured in Gross Value Added or GDP) and €230m in direct tax for the Irish exchequer (including stamp duty on trading in Irish shares). The exchange is regulated by the Central Bank of Ireland under the Markets in Financial Instruments Regulations (MiFID) and is a member of the World Federation of Exchanges and the Federation of European Stock Exchanges.
The post-2008 Irish economic downturn, coincided with a series of banking scandals, followed the 1990s and 2000s Celtic Tiger period of rapid real economic growth fuelled by foreign direct investment, a subsequent property bubble which rendered the real economy uncompetitive, and expansion in bank lending in the early 2000s. An initial slowdown in economic growth amid the international financial crisis of 2007–08greatly intensified in late 2008 and the country fell into recession for the first time since the 1980s. Emigration, as did unemployment (particularly in the construction sector), escalated to levels not seen since that decade. The Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ) general index, which reached a peak of 10,000 points briefly in April 2007, fell to 1,987 points— a 14-year low— on 24 February 2009 (the last time it was under 2,000 being mid-1995). In September 2008, the Irish government— a Fianna Fail-Green coalition— officially acknowledged the country's descent into recession; a massive jump in unemployment occurred in the following months. Ireland was the first state in the Eurozone to enter a recession, as declared by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). By January 2009, the number of people living on unemployment benefits had risen to 326,000— the highest monthly level since records began in 1967— and the unemployment rate rose from 6.5% in July 2008 to 14.8% in July 2012.
The slumping economy drew 100,000 demonstrators onto the streets of Dublin on 21 February 2009, amid further talk of protests and industrial action. With the banks "guaranteed" and the National Asset Management Agency (NAMA) established on the evening of 21 November 2010, then Taoiseach Brian Cowen confirmed on live television that the EU/ECB/IMF troika would be involving itself in Ireland's financial affairs. Support for the Fianna Fail party, dominant for much of the previous century, then crumbled; in an unprecedented event in the nation's history, it fell to third place in an opinion poll conducted by The Irish Times— placing behind Fine Gael and the Labor Party, the latter rising above Fianna Fail for the first time. On 22 November, the Greens called for an election the following year.
The2011 general election replaced the ruling coalition with another one, between Fine Gael and Labor. This coalition continues with the same austerity policies of the previous coalition, as the country's larger parties all favor a similar agenda. Official statistics showed a drop in most crimes coinciding with the economic downturn. Burglaries, however, rose by approximately 10% and recorded prostitution offenses more than doubled from 2009 to 2010. In late 2014 the unemployment rate was 11.0% on the seasonally adjusted measure, still over double the lows of the mid-2000s but down from a peak of 15.1% in early 2012. By December 2015, this figure had fallen to 8.8%. The economy and government finances began to show signs of impending recession by the end of 2007 when tax revenues fell short of the 2007 annual budget forecast by €2.3 billion (5%), with stamp duties and income tax, both falling short by €0.8 billion (19% and 5%) resulting in the 2007 general government budget surplus of €2.3 billion (1.2% of GDP) being wiped out. An imminent recession became clear by mid-2008. Subsequently, government deficits increased, many businesses closed and unemployment increased. The Irish Stock Exchange (ISEQ) fell and many immigrant workers left. On 29 September 2008 the government issued a 2-year unlimited guarantee of all debt (the Credit Institutions Financial Stabilization Act, or CIFS guarantee) in favor of 6 banks. It was approved at the time by the European Commission.
The CIFS "blanket guarantee" of Irish domestic banks covered debts estimated at around €440 billion at the start. It covered all debts of the 6 banks protected, was non-renewable, and was never called on. As such, the guarantee itself did not directly cost the State anything - and since the protected banks paid levies in exchange, it can technically be described as having made money. However, preventing the guarantee from being called on committed the Irish government to preventing the collapse of any of the participating banks, which would have resulted in the calling on of the guarantee at a time when the banks had large debts, bank assets were of little value for lack of buyers, and the government's finances were already under heavy strain. The CIFS blanket guarantee was never renewed. An ancillary guarantee, the Eligible Liabilities Guarantee, was passed in 2009. This second guarantee scheme applied only to specified new debt (but applied to that debt until maturity), and was renewable on a six-monthly basis. It is this second guarantee that was renewed several times after the expiry of the CIFS guarantee. After the bailout exit, the economy started to recover, recording a 4.8% increase in 2014. National debt fell to 109% of GDP and the budget deficit fell to 3.1% in the fourth quarter of 2014. However, opinion polls for the Fine Gael-Labor coalition in 2014 showed that approval ratings for government policies continued to drop and after numerous allegations of Gardaí malpractice resulted in the Minister for Justice Alan Shatter resigning and Taoiseach Enda Kenny awarding himself the office of Minister of Defense. As well as this the Government had formally established Irish Water, a company to charge people for water usage and had begun to install water meters in front of every property across the country, which caused huge controversy and protest throughout Ireland. During 2015, unemployment fell from 10.1% to 8.8%, while the economy grew by an estimated 6.7%. In November 2015, it was reported that exchequer receipts were €3 Billion ahead of target and that the government's tax revenues had risen by 10.5% throughout 2015. During 2015, Fine Gael rose in the opinion polls, while their coalition partner Labor struggled to rise above 10%.
Prehistoric Ireland saw the arrival of humans after 8000 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century and lasted until the early 17th century. The island was Christianized from the 5th century onward. Following the Norman invasion in the 12th century, England claimed sovereignty over Ireland. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonization by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, and was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became increasingly sovereign over the following decades, and Northern Ireland which remained a part of the United Kingdom. Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973, both parts of Ireland joined the European Economic Community.
Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures, especially in the fields of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music, and the Irish language. The culture of the island has also many features shared with Great Britain, including the English language, and sports such as association football, rugby, horse racing, and golf. During its first decade the newly formed Irish Free State was governed by the victors of the civil war. When de Valera achieved power, he took advantage of the Statute of Westminster and political circumstances to build upon inroads to greater sovereignty made by the previous government. The oath was abolished and in 1937 a new constitution was adopted. This completed a process of gradual separation from the British Empire that governments had pursued since independence. However, it was not until 1949 that the state was declared, officially, to be the Republic of Ireland.
The state was neutral during World War II, but offered clandestine assistance to the Allies, particularly in the potential defense of Northern Ireland. Despite their country's neutrality, approximately 50,000 volunteers from independent Ireland joined the British forces during the war, four being awarded Victoria Crosses.
Charles Stewart Parnell
(Leader of Irish nationalists))
(Leader of Democratic Unionist Party)
The Irish pound was the currency of Ireland until 2002. Its ISO 4217 code was IEP, and the usual notation was the prefix £ (or IR£ where confusion might have arisen with the pound sterling or other pounds). The Irish pound was superseded by the euro on 1 January 1999. Euro currency did not begin circulation until the beginning of 2002. In 1801, Ireland became part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, but the Irish pound continued to exist until January 1826.
In the vicinity of 1804 and 1813 silver tokens worth ten pence were issued by the Bank of Ireland and were designated in pence Irish. The last copper coins of the Irish pound were printed in 1823, and in 1826 the Irish pound was annulled, to be supplanted by the pound sterling. After 1826 some Irish banks kept on issuing paper certified receipts, yet these were named in pounds sterling, and no more unmistakably Irish coins were stamped until the formation of the Irish Free State in the twentieth century. Decimalization of the cash was talked about amid the 1960s. At the point when the British government chose to decimalize its money, the Irish government went with the same pattern. The administrative reason for decimalization in the Republic was the Decimal Currency Act, 1969. The quantity of pence in the Irish pound was re-imagined from 240 to 100, with the penny image evolving from "d" to "p". The pound itself was not revalued by this demonstration and accordingly pound banknotes were unaffected, despite the fact that the 10-shilling note was supplanted by the 50p coin. The new 5 pence coin associated with the old 1 shilling coin, and the new 10 pence coin related with the old 2-shilling coin. New coins were issued of an indistinguishable measurement and materials from the relating new British coins. The Decimal Currency Act, 1970 made extra arrangements for the changeover not related to the issue of coins. Decimalization was regulated by the Irish Decimal Currency Board, made on 12 June 1968. It gave changeover data to people in general including a flyer called Everyone's Guide to Decimal Currency. The changeover happened on Decimal Day, 15 February 1971. Until 1986, all decimal Irish coins were an indistinguishable shape and size from their UK partners. After this, in any case, every single new category or overhauled coins were of various sizes to the UK coinage. The new 20p coin presented that year and the £1 coin (presented in 1990) was totally extraordinary in size, shape, and arrangement to the beforehand presented UK adaptations. At the point when the UK 5p and 10p coins were lessened in the estimate, the Irish took action accordingly, however, the new Irish 10p was littler than the new UK adaptation presented in 1992 and the new Irish 5p was somewhat bigger than the UK rendition presented in 1990. The Irish 50p was never diminished in the measure (as it had been in the UK in 1997).
31 December 1998, the trade rates between the European Currency Unit and the Irish pound and 10 different EMS monetary forms (everything except the pound sterling, the Swedish krona and the Danish krone) were settled. The settled change factor for the Irish pound was €1 = IR£0.787564. On the following day, a virtual euro was presented and the conversion scale was GB£1 = €1.42210, making GB£1? IR£1.12. By 1 January 2002, the day when the physical euro was presented, GB£1 was worth about IR£1.287. Following the energy about the euro since its dispatch and the fall of Sterling in 2007– 2009, as of May 2012, GB£1 was worth about what might as well be called IR£0.98.
|National Song||"Amhrán na bhFiann"|
|GDP / GDP Rank||324.9 Billion USD|
|GDP Growth Rate||7.8 Percent|
|GDP Per Captial||$69230.815 (PPP)|
< 1.0% Hindus
< 1.0% Buddhists
< 1.0% Jews
< 1.0% Other Religions
Other White 7.5%
President – Michael D. Higgins
Taoiseach – Leo Varadkar
|Website||Go to the web|
|Public Debt||76.416 Percent|
|Unemployment Rate||8.089 Percent|
|Labor Force (Occupation)||-|